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Surgery of the Female Reproductive system

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The literal meaning of the term “gynecology” refers to the study of the female reproductive system and its diseases. The reproductive system for all species, is the system of the sex organs, both external and internal, which work together to produce offspring.

The reproductive system for most species varies significantly, unlike the other organ system, which causes greater possibility of genetic material between organisms and also greater fitness in the offspring. Along with the sex organs, some non-living substances such as fluids, hormones and pheromones are also important for reproductive system. The reproductive system of most mammals is same, though it is quite different for humans. Unlike humans, most of the other male species do not remain continually sexually active, and the anatomy of the sex organs differs significantly also. In humans, the male reproductive system performs solely one function which is producing and deposit sperms.

The female reproductive system is different also for most species; the vagina and uterus are unique to mammals which are not found in amphibians, reptiles, birds or fish. The female reproductive system of marsupials has two vaginae both of which open in the uterus, corresponding to which the males usually have two-pronged penis. The female reproductive system in humans performs two functions, to produce egg cells and to nourish and protect the offspring until birth.

For human males, the organs of the reproductive system are located outside the body and around the pelvic region. The major function of the male reproductive organs is to produce sperm to fertilize with the ovum, and produce hormones which are also related to secondary sexual characteristics. The female reproductive organs in humans are also a group of reproductive organs, which are mostly located outside the body and around the pelvic area.

The female reproductive organs in humans comprises of three main parts which are, the vagina from the vulva to the uterus, the uterus which carries the developing fetus, and the ovaries which produce the female’s ova which in turn produces the egg. The breasts, which nurses the baby as part of parenting, is not involved as reproductive organ for most purposes. The physiology of the female reproductive system is such that the vagina opens in the vulva which also includes the labia, clitoris and urethra. The vagina is connected to the uterus through the cervix, while the uterus is attached to the ovaries through the fallopian tubes.

Gynecology in Pune is related to study of the female reproductive system and its diseases. Some conditions of the female reproductive system may be treated with medication, whereas some may need surgery on further investigation. Surgery may be performed for benign conditions, cancer, infertility, and incontinence. Sometimes surgery may not be needed, and is undertaken only for cosmetic purposes.

The various procedures which are performed for the female reproductive organs are specific to each organ; the surgery for Ovary and Fallopian tubes are Oophorectomy, Salpingoophorectomy, Falloposcopy, Salpingectomy, Tubal ligation, Essure and Tubal reversal. The various procedures for conditions of the uterus are specific to each part of the uterus, the general procedures are Hysterectomy, Hysterotomy, Pelvic exenteration, Uterine artery embolization; the procedures for the uterine cavity are Hysteroscopy, vacuum aspiration; the procedure for the endometrium is endometrial biopsy and endometrial ablation; uterine myomectomy for the myometrium; and Colposcopy, Cervical conization, Cervical screening for the cervix.

The procedures of the female reproductive system are complex and are usually performed by gynecologists. For example, the procedure Fluid Contrast Ultrasound (FCUS) is an alteration of the standard pelvic ultrasound. The procedure is meant to measure the thickness of the uterine lining and to find texture of the surface for abnormalities such as polyps or fibroids.

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